The Green Mountains run north-south for the length of the state. The state capital is Montpelier, the least populous state capital in the United States.Vermont is the second smallest by population and the sixth smallest by area of the 50 U. The most populous city, Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in a state.
say that the mountains were called green because they were more forested than the higher White Mountains of New Hampshire and Adirondacks of New York; others say that the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, is the reason.
The Green Mountain range forms a north–south spine running most of the length of the state, slightly west of its center.
In the southwest portion of the state are the Taconic Mountains; the Granitic Mountains are in the northeast.
In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state; Killington Peak, the second-highest; Camel's Hump, the state's third-highest; and Mount Abraham, the fifth-highest peak.
years ago, the second mountain building period created Green Mountain peaks that were 15,000–20,000 feet (4,600–6,100 m) tall, three to four times their current height and comparable to the Himalayas.