(Page 3) One solution -- there were of course others -- was to improve the drainage, and thus the crop-yield, of heavy farmland by underground, or hollow, drainage. Deep trenching, with faggots, stones, shells or gravel laid at the bottom of the trench, and then the earth by replaced on top, had long been used as a drainage method; such drains, however, did not last long and needed frequent or re-laying.Towards the end of the eighteenth century a few landowners began to employ a more effective type of although drainage, using tiles or drain bricks to replace the faggots and stones.
The study of ancient handwriting, usually in ink, is a separate field, palaeography.
The character of the writing, the subject of epigraphy, is a matter quite separate from the nature of the text, which is studied in itself.
The US Library of Congress classifies epigraphy as one of the auxiliary sciences of history.
Epigraphy also helps identify a forgery: epigraphic evidence formed part of the discussion concerning the James Ossuary.
Mole-drainage (cheaper, although it had to be renewed) was used instead.